Immunochemistry is the identification of a certain antigen in a histological tissue section or cytological preparation by an antibody specific to that antigen. Immunohistochemistry refers specifically to histological tissue sections.
Immunohistochemistry uses antibodies, reagents and stains for the diagnosis and research of cancer. The common nuclear counterstains are: Hematoxylin, Light Green, Fast Red, Toliudine Blue and Methylene Blue. Also an Alum-Mordant base on Hematoxylin is used such as Harris's Hematoxylin (now is offered without mercury). Mayer's Hematoxylin is one of the most popular mordants used in immunohistochemistry as well as Gill's Hematoxylins that are classified as 1,2,3.
Immunohistochemistry uses different methods and approaches. The specimen needs to be well fixed. One of the most popular fixatives is 10% Neutral Formalin and Zinc Formalin. Also in immunohistochemistry, a transport solution is needed to transport the specimen. The most popular is Michel's Immunofluorescence Working.
The Enzymatic method for immunohistochemistry uses reagents like Calcium Chloride, Sodium Hydroxide, Hydrochloric Acid solutions, Xylenes for dewaxing, and Methanol. Immunohistochemistry use different staining procedures such as one step direct method, ABC methods, two-step indirect method and Tyramide signal amplification.